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James Weldon Johnson

James Weldon Johnson
Usage Conditions Apply
Laura Wheeler Waring, 1887 - 1948
James Weldon Johnson, 17 Jun 1871 - 27 Jun 1938
Oil on canvas
Stretcher: 92.7 x 76.2cm (36 1/2 x 30")
Frame: 109.2 x 95.3 x 5.1cm (43 x 37 1/2 x 2")
Credit Line
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of the Harmon Foundation
Restrictions & Rights
Usage conditions apply
© Estate of Laura Wheeler Waring
Object number
Exhibition Label
Born Jacksonville, Florida
James Weldon Johnson was a Renaissance man: successful Broadway lyricist, poet, novelist, diplomat, and a key figure in the NAACP. In 1900, he collaborated with his brother to produce “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” a song that later acquired the subtitle of “The Negro National Anthem.” President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Johnson consul to Venezuela and Nicaragua, where he served with great distinction. In the 1920s, Johnson became a key figure in the Harlem Renaissance, known for his anthology, The Book of American Negro Poetry; his work on African American religion, God’s Trombones; and Black Manhattan, the first history of African Americans in New York City. As chief operating officer of the NAACP during that same decade, he helped formulate the strategy that would later overturn American segregation laws. The background of this portrait recalls “Creation,” Johnson’s best-known poem in God’s Trombones.
Nacido en Jacksonville, Florida
James Weldon Johnson fue un hombre renacentista: exitoso letrista de Broadway, poeta, novelista, diplomático y figura clave de la Asociación Nacional para el Progreso de las Personas de Color (NAACP en inglés). En 1900 colaboró con su hermano en la creación de “Lift Every Voice and Sing”, canción que llegaría a conocerse como el “himno nacional negro”. Nombrado por el presidente Theodore Roosevelt, Johnson fue cónsul en Venezuela y Nicaragua, donde sirvió con gran distinción. En la década de 1920 fue figura clave del movimiento Harlem Renaissance, destacándose por su antología The Book of American Negro Poetry, su obra God’s Trombones sobre la tradición religiosa afroamericana y Black Manhattan, la primera historia de los afroamericanos en la Ciudad de Nueva York. Como director de operaciones de la NAACP en esa misma década, participó en el diseño de la estrategia que terminaría por echar abajo las leyes de segregación racial en Estados Unidos. El fondo de este retrato recuerda el conocido poema “Creation” de Johnson, incluido en God’s Trombones.
The Harmon Foundation, a philanthropic organization based in New York City and active from (1922-1967) included this portrait in their exhibition “Portraits of Outstanding Americans of Negro Origins” which documented noteworthy African Americans’ contributions to the country. Modeling their goal of social equality, the Harmon sought portraits from an African-American artist, Laura Wheeler Waring and Euro-American artist, Betsy Graves Reyneau. The two painters followed the conventional codes of academic portraiture, seeking to convey their sitters extraordinary accomplishments. This painting, along with a variety of educational materials, toured nation-wide for ten years serving as a visual rebuttal to racism.
Harmon Foundation; gift 1967 to NPG
Data Source
National Portrait Gallery
See more items in
National Portrait Gallery Collection
The Struggle for Justice
On View
NPG, West Gallery 220