In 1954, when Ernest Hemingway received the Nobel Prize for Literature, the committee cited his "mastery of the art of modern narration." In fact, in his short stories and such novels as The Sun Also Rises (1926) and For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), Hemingway had in large measure invented a new literary style as he chronicled the disillusionment of a post-World War I "lost generation." His terse, powerful prose became a major influence on American literature. Hemingway's own experiences-reporting foreign wars, living the bohemian life in Paris, and adventuring in Africa, Spain, or Cuba-fueled his imagination and helped create his larger-than-life persona. Man Ray's 1928 photograph of a bandaged Hemingway, made after an accident with an overhead window, occasioned the quip from poet Ezra Pound: "How the hellsufferin tomcats did you git drunk enough to fall upwards through the blithering skylight!"