Time magazine named Nikita Khrushchev, first secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, as its Man of the Year for 1957. It was a banner year for the Soviet leader: in October, the Soviets had launched Sputnik, the first manmade satellite to orbit the earth. Several weeks later, following a failed U.S. rocket launch, a second Sputnik circled the globe. Khrushchev also announced an intercontinental ballistic missile program, made credible by the successful space launchings, and bragged about higher production levels in agriculture and industry. Diplomatically, Khrushchev succeeded in achieving warmer ties with China, building a stronger network of allies in the Middle East, and halting the growing disaffection of the Eastern European nations. Russian born artist Boris Artzybasheff, who fled his homeland in 1917, depicted the Soviet leader wearing a self-satisfied expression and a Kremlin-shaped crown, and playing with his new Sputnik toy.