Americans tolerate, and even expect, a high degree of religiosity in their public and political lives. Yet the public is also mindful of the Constitution and the later concept of separation of church and state, so prominent religious figures are nearly always lightning rods for controversy. Such has certainly been the case for the televangelist Pat Robertson, whose conservative doctrine and link between religion and public or national conduct is a prominent influence on contemporary American political culture. A Southern Baptist who campaigned unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination in 1988, Robertson has used his television ministry as a venue from which to castigate modern Americans for their moral and personal failings. He has prophesized the end of the world because of its corruption and views himself as a modern Noah who will guide his flock to safety while the wicked perish.