Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense in Oakland, California, in the fall of 1966. Having previously worked together at a neighborhood antipoverty center, the two hoped to prevent abusive behavior by local police and to provide assistance programs to the city’s poor African American residents. When Newton was jailed for the murder of a policeman, he and the Black Panthers became the national icon of militant black nationalists. Given the fiery rhetoric of its leaders, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover was moved to describe the Panthers in 1969 as America’s greatest national security threat. By the time of Newton’s release on appeal in 1970, the Panthers had branch offices in more than thirty cities. In this poster by Emory Douglas, the Panthers’ minister of culture, Newton and Seale stand outside their Oakland headquarters.